Vice-President Tomas Heidar
Member of the Tribunal since 1 October 2014; Vice-President of the Tribunal since October 2020; President of the Chamber for Fisheries Disputes 2017-2020; Member of the Special Chamber formed to deal with the Dispute concerning delimitation of the maritime boundary between Mauritius and Maldives in the Indian Ocean (Mauritius/Maldives)
Born: Reykjavik, Iceland, 10 August 1962.
Education: Cand. jur. (B.A. and LL.M.), Faculty of Law, University of Iceland (1982–1988); summer course in public international law, Hague Academy of International Law, The Netherlands (1988); courses in public international law, European Community law, competition law and intellectual property law, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (1992–1993); summer course in European Community law, the law of human rights in Europe, and law and society, Academy of European Law, European University Institute, Fiesole, Italy (1993); Certificate in European Studies (European Community law, public international law), Europe Institute, University of Saarland, Saarbrücken, Germany (1993–1994).
Professional Experience: Attorney at Law, Law Firm of Thorolfur Kristjan Beck, Fridjon Orn Fridjonsson and Tomas Heidar, Reykjavik (1988–1992); Secretary, National Commission on High Seas Fisheries (1994–1995); UN Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (1994–1995); negotiations with Norway and Russia on Barents Sea cod fisheries (1994–1999); Deputy Legal Adviser, Ministry for Foreign Affairs (1996); Legal Adviser, Ministry for Foreign Affairs (1996-2014); Head of Delegation: negotiations with Denmark/Greenland on the delimitation of the maritime area between Iceland and Greenland (1996–1997), Preparatory Commission for the Establishment of an International Criminal Court (1996–1998), negotiations with Denmark/Faroe Islands on the delimitation of the maritime area between Iceland and the Faroe Islands (1996–2007), Annual Meeting of the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (1997), Meetings of States Parties to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (1997–2014), informal consultations for the negotiation of General Assembly resolutions on Oceans and the Law of the Sea and Sustainable Fisheries (1997–2013), UN Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court (1998), meetings of the Open-ended Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the Law of the Sea (2000–2007), consultations with the United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark/Faroe Islands on the continental shelf in the Hatton Rockall area (2001–2014), Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute on the International Criminal Court (2002–2004), informal consultations of States Parties to the 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement (2002–2014), negotiations with Norway and Denmark/Faroe Islands on the delimitation of the continental shelf between Iceland, Norway and the Faroe Islands (2006), Review Conference of the 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement (2006, 2010), meetings of the Ad-Hoc Open-ended Informal Working Group to study issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction (2006–2014), negotiations of the FAO International Guidelines for the Management of Deep-sea Fisheries in the High Seas (2008), negotiations of the FAO Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing (2008–2009), coastal States negotiations on mackerel fisheries in the North-East Atlantic (2010–2012), negotiations with Denmark/Greenland on the delimitation of the continental shelf between Greenland and Iceland (2012–2013), meetings with the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf and its Subcommission established to consider the submission of Iceland (2013–2014); coastal States negotiations on Atlanto-Scandian herring fisheries in the North-East Atlantic (1996–2000); meetings, Legal Advisers of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of the Nordic countries (1996–2014); meetings, Committee of Legal Advisers on Public International Law of the member States of the Council of Europe (1996–2013); Third to Fifth sessions, Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1997–1999); annual meetings, North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (1997–2002); annual meetings, Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (1997–2002); general debate of the UN General Assembly on Oceans and the Law of the Sea (1997–2013); annual meetings, OSPAR Commission (the OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic) (1997–2012); Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly (1997–2013); Informal Meetings of Legal Advisers at the UN (1997–2013); Lecturer, Faculty of Law, University of Iceland (1998–present); Chairman, National Commission on Continental Shelf Limits (2000–2014); FAO Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem (2001); Annual Meetings, International Whaling Commission (2001–2003, Head of Delegation 2009–2011); Director, Law of the Sea Institute of Iceland (2002–present); Co-Director and Lecturer, Rhodes Academy of Oceans Law and Policy (2003–present); Meeting of the FAO Committee on Fisheries (2007); Chief Negotiator of Iceland on mackerel fisheries (2009–2012); Commissioner of Iceland, International Whaling Commission (2009–2012); Vice-Chairman, Negotiations Committee on Fisheries relating to the accession negotiations of Iceland with the European Union (2009–2013); various meetings with the European Union on fisheries in preparation for accession negotiations (2010–2011); guest lecturer at various universities; Ambassador (2014); Conciliator under Annex V to the Convention (2014–present); Arbitrator under Annex VII to the Convention (2014–present).
Member: National group for the purpose of nominating candidates for election to international courts and tribunals (1996–present); Editorial Board of the Nordic Journal of International Law (2000–present); Board of Leifur Eiriksson Moot Court Club (for the participation of Icelandic law students in the Philip C. Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition) (2001–present); Editorial Board of the Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law (2010–present); Board of the Polar Law Institute, University of Akureyri (2010–present); Advisory Board of the Centre for Arctic Policy Studies, Institute of International Affairs, University of Iceland (2013–present).
Publications and Lectures: Author of numerous writings and publications, including: Friðhelgi ríkja og eigna þeirra gagnvart lögsögu dómstóla annarra ríkja (Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property) (in Icelandic), University of Iceland, 1988; Richterliche Rechtsfortbildung im Europäischen Gemeinschaftsrecht (Lawmaking of Courts in European Community Law) (in German), Europa Institut, 1994; “Lausn deilna við nágrannaríkin á sviði fiskveiða og hafréttar” (“Settlement of Fisheries and Maritime Delimitation Disputes with Neighbouring Countries”) (in Icelandic), in: Sjávarsýn, Njördur, Iceland, 1999; “Réttarstaða landgrunnsins, réttur strandríkja til landgrunns og afmörkun íslenska landgrunnsins” (“Legal Status of the Continental Shelf and Delineation of the Icelandic Continental Shelf”) (in Icelandic), in: Líndæla, Liber Amicorum Sigurður Líndal, Hið íslenska bókmenntafélag, Iceland, 2001; “Legal Aspects of Continental Shelf Limits”, in: Legal and Scientific Aspects of Continental Shelf Limits, Martinus Nijhoff, 2004; Legal and Scientific Aspects of Continental Shelf Limits (co-ed.), Martinus Nijhoff, 2004; “Emerging UN Law of the Sea Issues”, in: Recent Developments in the Law of the Sea and China, Martinus Nijhoff, 2006; Þorskastríðin þrjú – saga landhelgismálsins 1948-1976 (The Three Cod Wars – the History of the Fisheries Zone Dispute 1948-1976) (in Icelandic) (ed.), Law of the Sea Institute of Iceland, 2006; Law, Science and Ocean Management (co-ed.), Martinus Nijhoff, 2007; Havets nye grænser (The New Ocean Boundaries) (in Danish), Rotary Norden, 2008; “The Legal Regime of the Arctic Ocean“, in: Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (ZaöRV), Heidelberg Journal of International Law, Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 2009, and in: New Chances and New Responsibilities in the Arctic Region, Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2010; Changes in the Arctic Environment and the Law of the Sea (co-ed.), Martinus Nijhoff, 2010; “Delimitation of the Continental Shelf and Determination of the Outer Limits of the Continental Shelf beyond 200 Nautical Miles in Areas of Overlapping Claims: The Nordic Model”, in: Peaceful Order in the World´s Oceans, Essays in Honor of Satya N. Nandan, Brill Nijhoff, 2014; “The Legal Framework for High Seas Fisheries in the Central Arctic Ocean”, in International Maritime Economy: Law and Policy, Brill Nijhoff, 2017; “Foreword: The Rule of Law of the Sea”, in Natural Resources and the Law of the Sea: Exploration, Allocation, Exploitation of Natural Resources in Areas under National Jurisdiction and Beyond, International Law Institute, 2017; “Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine Biological Diversity Beyond Areas of National Jurisdiction: A Third Implementing Agreement under the Law of the Sea Convention?”, in Liber Amicorum Guðmundur Eiríksson, University for Peace and O.P. Jindal Global University, 2017; “Introduction”, in Guide to the Navigation of Marine Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (in English, French and Portuguese), Editora D’Plácido, 2018; Maritime Challenges in Asia (ed.), Korea Maritime Institute, 2020; New Knowledge and Changing Circumstances in the Law of the Sea (ed.), Brill Nijhoff, 2020; “Introduction: How Does the Law of the Sea Adapt to New Knowledge and Changing Circumstances”, in New Knowledge and Changing Circumstances in the Law of the Sea, Brill Nijhoff, 2020; "The Contribution of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to the Protection of the Marine Environment", in The Korean Journal of International and Comparative Law, 2021.
Numerous lectures, including, most recently: University of Iceland, Faculty of Law, Reykjavik, March 2021; Second Virtual Expert Workshop on Best Practices in Compliance in Regional Fisheries Management Organizations: The Role of Transparency in Improving RFMO Compliance, The Pew Charitable Trusts and the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation, Washington D.C., March 2021; Online Leverhulme Lecture & Distinguished Experts Dialogue: Natural Resources, the Sustainable Development Goals and International Law, University of Cambridge and the International Law Association’s Committee on the Role of International Law in the Sustainable Management of Natural Resources for Development, March 2021; Nippon Fellowship Programme, International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, Hamburg, March 2021; Online Short Course: Law of the Sea, British Institute of International and Comparative Law, London, April 2021; Ankara University, Faculty of Law, April and May 2021; European Society of International Law (ESIL) Interest Group on Law of the Sea Webinar Series, Current Issues in the Law of the Sea, Florence, May 2021; IMO International Maritime Law Institute Online Course on Peaceful Settlement of Maritime Disputes, Msida, May 2021; NUS Centre for International Law (CIL) and the International Courts and Tribunals Interest Group of the American Society of International Law (ASIL), Singapore, May 2021; E-Conference on World Oceans Day, Peaceful Settlement of Disputes in the Oceans in the 21st Century, Aegean Institute of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law, Rhodes, June 2021; Kadir Has International Law of the Sea Summer Academy, Istanbul, June and July 2021; Yeosu Academy of the Law of the Sea, Seventh Session, July 2021; Rhodes Academy of Oceans Law and Policy, Virtual Session, July 2021; IFLOS Summer Academy Online Course, Hamburg, August 2021; University of Tromsø – The Arctic University of Norway, Norwegian Centre for the Law of the Sea, October 2021; Online Short Course: Law of the Sea, British Institute of International and Comparative Law, London, October 2021; International Colloquium: Administrative Justice and the Environment, Antananarivo, October 2021; Online Papua New Guinea Fisheries Judicial Conference: Promoting Transparency and Accountability in Fisheries, Port Moresby, November 2021; the V Congress of the Brazilian Institute for the Law of the Sea (BILOS), Brasília, November 2021; Yeosu Academy of the Law of the Sea, Eighth Session, Virtual Programme, December 2021.
Distinctions: Knight, First Class, of the Order of the Lion of Finland.